believecatalog.com/wp-content/pirater-un/tako-espionner-iphone.html Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17 , — Little work has been done to study the relation between general health and gambling behaviour, yet there is some evidence that nongambling health problems are associated with problem gambling. This article discusses this relationship with an eye to screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling, as well as the relation between problem gambling and substance abuse.
The authors suggest that general practitioners can play a role in the identification of pathological gambling. More awareness of the general health correlates associated with certain gambling behaviours could lead to physicians assuming a preventative role. Raylu, N. Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23 , — The role of culture in gambling and problem gambling has not been addressed properly in the literature.
This article discusses these cultural variations and identifies variables pertinent to the initiation and maintenance of gambling behaviour. The few studies available suggest that some cultures are more prone to gambling as well as problem gambling. An important consideration is the effect of culture upon help seeking. Yet knowledge is lacking. For example, despite anecdotal evidence of high rates of gambling and problem gambling among Asians, this has not been systematically studied.
Few studies have looked at problem gambling among ethnic minorities. This article attempts to redress this gap by reviewing available knowledge, gauges the extent to which western studies provide information applicable to other groups, and makes recommendations for further research. The authors note that high rates of problem gambling among certain groups are not reflected in treatment attendance. Culturally relevant, community-based approaches should replace the current overemphasis on hospitals and clinics.
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Ricketts, T. Differentiating normal and problem gambling: A grounded theory approach. Addiction Research and Theory, 12 , 77— This study follows up on another by the same authors that outlined a theory of problem gambling involving the experiences of males seeking treatment and the prediction of processes that differentiate normal and problem gamblers.
Arousal and a sense of achievement were associated with gambling of all kinds, whereas the use of gambling to manage negative emotions was associated with problem gambling—notably, problem gamblers seemed to lack alternative emotional outlets. Stinchfield, R. Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students.
This study addressed the prevalence of gambling, and variables associated with gambling behaviour, among 78, Minnesota public school students in the 9th and 12th grades. Most students had gambled in the past year, though few had gambled frequently or reported gambling-related difficulties. Age and gender were both significant, as older students and boys gambled more frequently. Gambling frequency was also associated with higher rates of sexual activity, the desire to stop gambling, alcohol use, tobacco use, regret over having bet certain amounts of money, and antisocial behaviour.
The author concludes that gambling is probably associated with other risky behaviours and that it may also be a function of adolescent experimentation. The kind of information delivered by this study—involving such a large sample and shedding some light on specific correlates—should help in the creation of targeted prevention efforts.
Adolescent gambling: Relationships with parent gambling and parenting practices. The additive and interactive links between family risk factors—parental gambling and parenting practices—were examined among a community sample of adolescents who completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents and a questionnaire on parenting practices. Parents completed the standard South Oaks Gambling Screen. Gambling frequency among adolescents was related to gambling frequency and problems among parents, while gambling problems among adolescents were associated only with the severity of fathers' gambling problems.
Low levels of parental monitoring were associated with gambling and other difficulties, and inadequate disciplinary practices—referring to inconsistent and harsh attempts to control a child's behaviour—were another factor associated with gambling problems in adolescents. The findings suggest that parenting practices and gambling behaviour should be targeted by prevention strategies. Vitaro, F. Gambling, delinquency, and drug use during adolescence: Mutual influences and common risk factors.
Seven hundred and seventeen boys participated in the study. Impulsivity, parental supervision, and friends' deviancy were collected when participants were 13 and 14 years of age. Gambling, substance use, and delinquency were collected through self-reports at ages 16 and 17 years. The results showed no influence or modest influence of problem behaviors on each other from age 16 to age 17 years, once current links and auto-correlations were accounted for. Conversely, the cross-sectional links between the three problem behaviors at each age were moderately high. Impulsivity, low parental supervision, and deviant friends were predictively related to each problem.
Finally, a significant, although modest, portion of the covariance between the three problem behaviors was accounted for by these three predictors. The authors recommend early efforts to reduce impulsive-disruptive behaviours, which in turn could be buttressed by improvement of parental supervision and association with friends who are less deviant.
Welte, J. Risk factors for pathological gambling. This study finds casino gambling, and engagement in many forms of gambling, to be associated with gambling pathology. Cards, bingo, and lotteries are associated with moderately high risk. Alcohol abuse, minority African, Hispanic, Asian , and low socioeconomic status were each associated with pathological gambling. When other variables were adjusted for, gender was not a significant predictor. Winters, K. Gambling involvement and drug use among adolescents.
This article discusses the association between gambling and drug use among youth. Such knowledge is key to understanding the origins and course of adolescent gambling. Though many risk factors seem to run across both behaviour domains, more knowledge is needed about which factors are common and which are specific to problem gambling. Comparisons of consequences are made, and the implications of co-occurrence are discussed.
In many respects, knowledge of the nature and consequences of problem gambling is less developed than that of substance abuse, a situation that must be rectified if better prevention and intervention strategies are to be developed. Aboriginal Responsible Gambling Strategy. A self-help guide to gambling responsibly. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Health. This page brochure is written in a personable style and contains one first-person account of problems with gambling. Readers are directed to ask themselves relevant questions about their gambling, with risk factors identified.
The pamphlet winds down on a positive note, with messages pertaining to overall healthy approaches to life and alternatives to gambling. Playing with fire: Aboriginal adolescent gambling. This video explores problem gambling, risk factors, and consequences through an aboriginal teen's story. Testimonies from gamblers are also provided. Your best bet: When young people gamble. An early intervention resource. This gambling education curriculum is designed to function within health, life skills, mathematics, or language arts classes.
Background information is provided, and an addiction model of problem gambling is employed. Misconceptions and risk factors are discussed. Byrne, G. The Free Yourself Program. Warrandyte, Australia: Rebound Consulting Pty. People weren't born addicted, but became so over time. FYP shows how the addiction process can be reversed and eliminated. Docherty, C. Youth education project When is it not a game? When the national pilot Youth Education Project delivered the gambling resource, When is it not a game? Game Planit Interactive Corp. This services [ sic ] allows various stakeholders to fulfill their duty-of-care obligations to implement product safety warnings and other needed protective measures.
Overall, Game Planit is forging the Standards of Excellence for Player Protection by providing all stakeholders with the highest possible prevention and problem gambling solutions based on innovation and empirical data into problem gambling risk factors from the most recent and leading-edge research into the games and problem gambling. Glass, L. Gambling education: Some strategies for South Australian schools. This report examines state, national, and international preventative strategies along with opportunities to develop gambling education programs in South Australian schools.
Such education is geared to informing students about the potential effects of gambling and to assist them in making healthy choices. The author points out that adult problem gambling often begins as early as the age of 10, rates of problem gambling among youth are higher than among adults, and gambling among youth is associated with other risky behaviours. The author also notes that gambling education in schools may in fact increase gambling rates by generating curiosity.
This article discusses prospects, and limits, of school-based interventions. As knowledge alone is not sufficient to alter gambling behaviour, this report proposes a constructivist learning theory approach that emphasizes the active agency of people in the learning process. Recommendations are divided into those applicable to schools and those falling outside the purview of educational institutions. Community-based recommendations involve changing perceptions of gambling, developing a measure of safe gambling, and educating retailers about laws governing sales to minors. School-based recommendations include educating teachers and creating a Project Officer post to oversee this report's recommendations.
Harm reduction information kit: For professionals working with at-risk populations. This information kit discusses the principles of harm reduction, with practical advice on issues ranging from substance abuse to problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15 , 83— This article discusses the U.
Fruit machine gambling presented itself as the most problematic of gambling behaviours, especially for adolescents and women. The authors presented their findings because there had been no prevalence studies of adult gambling in the U. Health-related consequences of problem gambling, including depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, were identified by a significant minority of callers. The authors advise that excessive gambling be identified as a serious health issue and point out that while general practitioners routinely ask patients about smoking and drinking, gambling is rarely discussed.
Know the Odds Inc. You figure it out—Problem gambling today. Auburn, Australia: Author. The purpose of the kit is to educate students to: prevent them becoming problem gamblers; and understand problem gambling in others. Le groupe Jeunesse. The count me out Moi, je passe awareness program for the prevention of gambling dependency. Montreal, QC: Le groupe Jeunesse. This is a bilingual French and English program designed for grade 3 through the end of high school. Knowledge about gambling, inaccurate cognitions, attitudes, and behaviours are all targeted. Risk and protective factors are explained.
Macdonald, J. Minimizing risk through preventative skills development. Paper presented at the 12th international conference on gambling and risk taking, Vancouver, BC. The course is designed to promote coping skills, awareness of randomness, self-monitoring, and critical thinking. Marotta, J.
Problem gambling prevention resource guide for prevention professionals. This guide was designed to provide professionals with information about the relationship between problem gambling and other problematic behaviours. As well, it discusses evidence-based prevention measures for addictions and those specific to gambling. The authors note that empirical knowledge of preventative initiatives for gambling is scant. A public health model is employed, focussing on the interaction of three correlates: host the individual , agent gambling , and environment social and physical context.
Risk and protective factors, based largely upon Dickson, Derevensky, and Gupta, , are discussed. The report discusses ways in which existing prevention programs for substance abuse can be integrated with gambling initiatives; here, common risk factors are emphasized. Minnesota Institute of Public Health Deal me in: Gambling trigger video and posters. Available from the Minnesota Institute of Public Health. The video is designed to raise student awareness of the negative consequences of gambling. Information on the signs of problem gambling is provided. Erroneous beliefs that often accompany gambling are identified and dispelled.
The posters and pamphlets are aimed not only at youth but also at women and seniors. North American Training Institute Kids don't gamble…Wanna bet? Available from Manisses Communication Group, Inc. This is a curriculum aimed at children in grades 3 through 8. Younger children are exposed to a puppet show, while children in grades 6 through 8 witness the experiences of a peer. Probability and problem gambling are explained.
Warning signs are identified. Responsible Gambling Council. It's only a game: A quick guide to low-risk gambling. Toronto: Responsible Gambling Council. This short pamphlet offers the Ontario Gambling Helpline's telephone number and is offered as a general information resource. Tips are given for low-risk gambling, and major signs of potential problem gambling are identified. The document is very easy to read. It's only a game: An older person's guide to low-risk gambling. This short pamphlet offers the Ontario Gambling Helpline's telephone number and targets seniors.
Why it's important to talk to your teens about gambling—and how to do it. As the title suggests, this pamphlet offers advice on how to bring up the topic of gambling with teenaged children. Saskatchewan Health. Gambling: Reducing the risks. Available from Saskatchewan Health, This educational resource, pilot tested by teachers in urban and rural schools, contains separate sections designed for grades 6 through 9.
It is designed to educate both teachers and students and is complemented with video education. Odds and problem gambling are explained. Sound advice, such as not to borrow money in order to gamble, is provided. There is a strong emphasis on life experience; e. The student information packages contain useful items such as a brief article on high rates of gambling among youth. Takushi, R.
Indicated prevention of problem gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20 , 83— The authors state that little is known about how best to prevent serious gambling problems among college students who exhibit moderate problems. This article provides a qualitative description of an indicated prevention intervention for college students. Such interventions are designed to identify those who demonstrate moderate problems and to prevent the onset of more serious ones. The intervention is based partly upon strategies with proven effectiveness in the alcohol field—brief motivation enhancement strategies and broad-spectrum skills training—and also on aspects of gambling treatment.
The results suggest that this approach generated positive responses from students, who felt they had received some benefit from the intervention. The authors caution that these results require more research for confirmation. Ursel, B. A brochure on Internet awareness and prevention. Journal of Gambling Issues, The Internet is the greatest area of current growth in gambling and poses unique risks associated with isolation. This article comments on a brochure created by the Regina Committee on Problem Gambling to address and reduce these risks.
Abbott, M. A review of research on aspects of problem gambling: Final report. This report was designed as a critical review of gambling research with the objective of clarifying certain issues and establishing future research priorities. Issues under consideration included risk factors, treatment interventions, and public education. The authors conclude that the focus of formal treatment on severe cases has meant that prevention efforts are poorly developed—even though the latter would be beneficial to far more individuals.
Prevention programs targeting youth are most acceptable to stakeholders. Experience with campaigns pertaining to tobacco and alcohol suggests that similar campaigns could be effective for gambling, for both youth and adults. So far, exclusion programs have received more research attention than any other preventative strategy difficulties with implementation are discussed. Hence, the effectiveness of other options presents itself as a research priority. One recent innovation, problem gambling information kiosks inside gambling establishments, is identified as highly promising, notably because it involves cooperation between gaming operators and practitioners.
Prevention efforts are often undermined by well-financed industry advertising campaigns. Benhsain, K. Awareness of independence of events and erroneous perceptions while gambling. Building upon studies that have found that individuals who are knowledgeable about the nature of randomness will nonetheless display erroneous beliefs pertaining to odds and random sequences while gambling, this study assessed the effect of reminders of event independence during a game.
The findings suggest not only that such reminders are effective at a cognitive level but that they decrease the motivation to continue playing. Blaszczynski, A. Self exclusion: A gateway to treatment. Self-exclusion is the most commonly used strategy by casinos, clubs, and hotels to assist problem gamblers. Principles guiding this procedure include, but are not limited to, the following: many gamble to excess and have trouble controlling their gambling, the gaming industry has a responsibility to provide safe gambling environments that minimize effects on those with problems, and individuals also bear some responsibility.
This paper was written to inform concerned parties about how best to assist those with gambling problems. It builds on previous research designed to identify behaviours that may indicate problem gambling, noting that the gaming industry provides an important link to treatment providers. Barriers to the effectiveness of self-exclusion programs—such as the lack of integration with other interventions, the perceived conflict of interest between gaining revenue and excluding gamblers, and the punitive nature of limiting a gambler's behaviour—are identified.
The authors propose an alternative model of self-exclusion, one that shifts from a punitive approach to rehabilitation resumption of control over gambling behaviour and reduces perceptions of conflict of interest by increasing transparency. The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling. This study was meant to assess these initiatives and to identify any negative unintended effects.
This study focussed on four issues: player satisfaction, player behaviour, player expenditure, and problem gamblers' perceptions of the effects the initiatives had upon their problem gambling. Little evidence was found that reconfiguring bill acceptors would help problem gamblers. Reduction of reel spin time may even exacerbate problems for some. Some preliminary evidence was found for the effectiveness of reduced bet size as a harm reduction strategy. Breen, H. The perceived efficacy of responsible gambling strategies in Queensland hotels, casinos and licensed clubs. This study gauges the extent to which these harm reduction principles have been implemented in casinos, hotels, and clubs.
Managers' and employees' opinions of the code and the efficacy of the six responsible gambling practices were also solicited. Some practices were found to be more feasible for implementation than others, though levels of implementation were not consistent among different venues, and other factors, such as number of gaming machines, managers' attitudes, and region, were also linked to compliance. Some practices, e. Small venues and venues in remote areas are less likely to comply with regulations, and managers and staff in small venues are less likely to view the regulations in positive terms.
The Code can be found in this document. In all, 18 recommendations are made. These include finding ways to enforce compliance more effectively, making gambling support services more proactive, and training staff more frequently in responsible gambling. Delfabbro, P. The stubborn logic of regular gamblers: Obstacles and dilemmas in cognitive gambling research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20 , 1— Gambling research has consistently confirmed the fact that gamblers tend to misrepresent the odds in gambling activities and hold many irrational beliefs.
It would thus seem that providing accurate information in gambling venues or on certain machines would be a strong preventative tactic. Different aspects of these belief systems are explored to help guide more effective consumer information initiatives. The author cautions that many cognitive phenomena are rooted in behavioural realities, suggesting that they be addressed at that level. The author also suggests that it may be more useful to educate in a preemptive fashion, before the gambling behaviour and the ensuing mystification can set in.
Ferland, F. Prevention of problem gambling: Modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18 , 19— Given research that demonstrates the high levels of involvement in gambling among youth, along with the irrational beliefs that often accompany these activities, this study tested a video designed to educate and dispel misconceptions on seventh and eight grade students. The authors argue that the delivery of information is an effective preventative tool.
This study targeted false conceptual links between independent events. A video format—designed to amuse and interest students—was used partly because a purely cognitive form of communication may be questionable in its effectiveness. This study suggests that the video is a meaningful resource, and its effectiveness would be enhanced if teachers played a complementary role. Govoni, R. A community effort: Ideas to action—Understanding and preventing problem gambling in seniors. While seniors have much time and motivation to gamble, their resources are often limited and they tend to lack the means to recover from financial strain.
This report outlines the testing of a community-based prevention program for seniors. The authors found that two thirds of seniors gamble, 1. The authors found that a prevention program for seniors should not be limited to senior service providers and that the whole community must be engaged. Hing, N. An assessment of member awareness, perceived adequacy and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies in Sydney clubs. Following the enactment of responsible gambling legislation in , this report assesses the awareness of Sydney club members of responsible gambling strategies and their perceptions of the strategies' adequacy and effectiveness.
The study also assessed perceptions of efficacy according to type of gambler, based upon games of choice, gender, age, and potential for gambling problems. High levels of awareness were found with respect to responsible gambling signage and information measures, including those related to problem gambling, though respondents were somewhat skeptical about the likelihood of these measures promoting responsible gambling. However, other measures—such as prevention of minors and intoxicated people from entering, refusal by clubs to extend credit or cash advances, payout of big wins by cheque instead of cash, and self-exclusion—were perceived as likely to promote responsible gambling.
In areas such as self-exclusion policy, local counselling services, and measures taken to help people keep track of time while playing poker machines, awareness was low. It is notable, for example, that while many patrons identified self-exclusion as potentially helpful, awareness of the existence of such policies was not high. The findings also suggest that restrictions on minors entering clubs were not always enforced.
Problem and at-risk gamblers were more aware of responsible gambling measures than non-problem gamblers. Gender was not a significant indicator of awareness. Horton, K. The effectiveness of interactive problem gambling awareness and prevention programs. The Safe play Risk Quiz is an on-line self-assessment tool that can be placed on video lottery terminals, video kiosks in gambling venues, and interactive slot machines.
It is designed to provide users with an awareness of risk factors for problem gambling and to enable them to assume control of their gambling. This study was designed to provide an initial evaluation— university undergraduates were involved—and results suggest that the quiz was effective in alerting people to their risk factors, though awareness generated by the quiz tends to diminish over time.
The authors note that these students were exposed to the quiz only briefly—they were not regular gamblers—and that people who used this tool more regularly at casinos would conceivably show stronger and more lasting effects. This should be tested in a real casino setting. Gambling: Promoting a culture of responsibility. Sydney, Australia: Author. This report reviews the effectiveness of gambling harm reduction measures with respect to their effects on the community and on gamblers. Indirect effects—related to employment, support for community projects, and other issues—were also considered.
Measures designed to protect gamblers should take into account consequences for recreational gamblers and the gambling industry. A system of accreditation for counselling services is also called for.
Awareness promotion about excessive gambling among video lottery retailers. What is chance and randomness? Is there a link between misunderstanding the concept of chance and excessive gambling? How does one recognise the symptoms of this disorder? How should retailers intervene if they decide to do so? Follow-up found that these retailers were considerably more likely to approach problem gamblers and talk about how to help than those who had not completed the workshop.
The authors emphasize that retailers and the gambling industry in general often show a willingness to promote responsible gambling. Correction of erroneous perceptions regarding the notions of chance and randomness in gambling among primary school students. American Journal of Health Education, 34 5 , 5— This study finds that when a program designed to correct misconceptions about chance and randomness among primary school students was applied by a specialist in the psychology of gambling, it was more effective than when applied by a teacher. The results have serious implications for the implementation of such programs at primary schools and for the role of teachers in the process.
Analysis of a casino's self-exclusion program. Self-exclusion is an attractive self-control procedure for people who have trouble controlling their gambling but are as yet unprepared to seek professional help. Yet these programs have not been studied. This article discusses characteristics of people who opted to have themselves barred from a Canadian casino with respect to sociodemographics, gambling pathology, gambling habits, and past experience with self-exclusion.
Ninety-five percent met the criteria for severe pathological gambling, and none did for non-problem gambling. Thirty percent stopped gambling entirely after enrolling in the program. Participants were concerned with the weakness of detection efforts, reporting that it was easy to gain access to the casino without being identified.
Some suggested that the procedure should be available by mail order so that reentering the casino would not be necessary. The authors argue that, from a preventative perspective, such programs could be offered to those at risk of becoming pathological gamblers. Risky behaviours could be described in pamphlets made available to casino patrons. Other recommendations for such programs and for future research are made. Video lottery terminal warning messages and the persistence to gamble. Gambling Research, 15 1 , 45— This study was designed to determine whether messages on a video lottery terminal screen, and breaks, would influence gambling behaviour.
The messages were about illusions of control and the realities of chance. Players were assigned randomly to three scenarios: no interruption, breaks, and messages. Both breaks and messages, on their own, were associated with fewer games played. Theoretical issues pertaining to these results, in the context of responsible gambling, are discussed. Structural characteristics of video lotteries: Effects of a stopping device on illusion of control and gambling persistence.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 21 , — A video lottery terminal stopping device was tested in two studies to gauge its effects on thinking and behaviour. Players had the ability to stop the reels from spinning. The first study involved illusions of control. Players were inclined to believe that symbols would differ with the timing of stoppage, that they might be able to control outcomes, that skill could be a factor, and that a stopping device could improve their chances of winning. The second study involved gambling behaviour itself, and it was found that the device was conducive to more games being played per session.
The results are discussed in terms of their implications for responsible gambling policy. Does a brochure about pathological gambling provide new information? This study was designed to determine whether a brochure on pathological gambling would provide new knowledge and information to the public.
One hundred fifteen people were chosen randomly at malls and parks and then assigned to control and experimental groups. The findings suggest that the brochure provided new information about problem gambling, risky behaviours, and help available. The authors point out that the information contained in brochures is rarely evaluated.
This study may stimulate others in the field to evaluate their material before distribution, thereby strengthening preventative and educational efforts. Future studies should also assess whether the effects of such materials are enduring. Lavoie, M. Prevention of gambling among youth: Increasing knowledge and modifying attitudes toward gambling.
Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, Gambling has been identified as popular among youth. With the increase in young people gambling, the likelihood of irrational thoughts and behaviours associated with gambling increases as well. A video designed to increase gambling-related knowledge and to dispel misconceptions was viewed by French-speaking students in grades 5 and 6. The results suggest that the video was successful on both counts.
The authors point out that 7- and year-old children are at a developmental stage where the illusion of control over chance events is likely to figure prominently and that the cognitive therapeutic approach suggests that loss of control in gambling results from such misconceptions. This study suggests that a video alone can be just as effective as a video combined with discussion, though the authors grant that discussion may improve the durability of the changes. Further research should include grade 4 students and also consider the long-term effects of such interventions on knowledge and attitudes.
Loba, P. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal games: Effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers. This study was conducted to identify game features of video lottery terminals VLTs that inhibit abuse by pathological gamblers yet have little effect on the behaviour of nonpathological players.
The study involved a video poker game as well as a spinning reels game. The study investigated three approaches: a counter that showed how much money had been spent, a VLT spinning reels game that did not enable players to stop the reel by touching the screen, and the manipulation of sensory features speed and sound. The results suggest that sensory manipulation delivered the most significant reaction differences between pathological and nonpathological gamblers. As well, running totals of money instead of credits spent could reduce the desire to play among pathological gamblers.
These findings support the notion that structural characteristics—such as sound and payout intervals—are significant. The authors offer possible reasons for their results yet caution that these findings should be replicated in more natural settings before harm reduction recommendations are made. Lostutter, T. Measuring gambling outcomes among college students.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 18 , — The questionnaires, along with other measures, were completed by undergraduate college students. The new measures, two of which are modelled upon measures used in alcohol studies, displayed good reliability and convergent validity. The measures deal separately with gambling quantity, related consequences, and motivation to change and represent in the authors' view an advance on currently available instruments in terms of their applicability to the development of effective prevention and treatment interventions.
The authors note, for example, that in secondary prevention, overlooking someone's readiness to change can be counterproductive. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: Curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling. The subject of this report is the development and evaluation of a school-based prevention curriculum for problem gambling. The focus was on subclinical youth. Knowledge of random events, coping skills, and self-monitoring skills were addressed. The authors find that cognitive issues are more easily transmitted than those pertaining to attitude and behaviour.
Randomness, and even knowledge of coping skills, can be more easily taught, whereas the acquisition of coping resources and the intricacies of self-monitoring would require a more developed program. Of note is the experiential aspect of self-monitoring.
Najavits, L. Can advertising increase awareness of problem gambling? A statewide survey of impact. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17 , — In order to gauge the effects of an advertising campaign billboards, brochures, posters, newspaper ads, pens, and T-shirts meant to raise awareness of problem gambling, adults in Indiana were surveyed randomly. Pre- and postcampaign surveys indicated that the campaign had had little effect and that few were exposed to it.
Among different approaches, billboards and slogans seemed most effective. The authors suggest that more powerful media, such as television, may be more effective, as would a focus on high-risk groups. Napolitano, F. The self-exclusion program: Legal and clinical considerations.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 19 , — This article discusses some of the difficulties with self-exclusion programs. For example, legal enforceability is tenuous. The author argues that such programs inappropriately shift the emphasis from the psychological problem of the addicted gambler to gambling itself. The author compares such confusion to the war on drugs, of which he is also critical. O'Neil, M. Evaluation of self-exclusion programs: Part A—Evaluation of self-exclusion programs in Victoria and Part B—Summary of self-exclusion programs in Australian states and territories.
This two-part study is both evaluative and descriptive. Part A evaluates self-exclusion programs in Victoria clubs, pubs, and casinos. It also discusses the literature and theoretical issues pertaining to self-exclusion. Part B describes the many self-exclusion programs in Australian states and territories, though some evaluation is offered. In Part A, interviews with self-excluded individuals indicate a lack of confidence in the system: identification and detection failures are common. Surveys of venues suggest that the programs have had little or no significant effect on problem gambling.
The authors recommend investigation of a new system of uniform identification that would restrict access to gaming areas. The definition of self-exclusion should be broadened to include a range of behaviours. Low utilization rates for self-exclusion indicate that other strategies are also needed. Financial resources should be increased, and relevant technologies should be improved. In Part B, the authors find that self-exclusion programs are not homogeneous throughout Australia and differ in many respects, such as the duration of exclusion and the method by which a person must initiate the process.
Data management and monitoring procedures are inadequate. Evaluation of effectiveness is also lacking. Riley-Smith, B. Testing of harm minimisation messages for gaming machines. This qualitative study was designed to evaluate gamblers' reactions, while playing poker machines, to 10 different harm reduction messages.
For both regular and problem gamblers, the following messages were effective in producing more responsible gambling behaviour: Have you spent more money on gambling than you intended? Are you gambling longer than planned? Have you felt bad or guilty about your gambling? Shortcomings and potentials of this type of strategy are discussed. This study was designed to help the Nova Scotia Gaming Corporation evaluate a second series of modified responsible gaming features RGFs implemented for video lottery terminals in Nova Scotia.
RGFs are designed to produce reality checks and breaks in play and to promote responsible gambling. Tse, S. Assessment of the research on technical modifications to electronic gaming machines in NSW, Australia. This report reviews two research reports that investigated the effects, on players and on gaming revenue, of proposed technical changes to the operation of gambling machines. The authors concluded that reducing the maximum bet size could be a sound harm reduction strategy. Reconfiguring bill collectors is also a promising idea, but only if proximity to automatic teller machines is taken into account.
Reel spin modifications showed less potential. Turner, N. Public awareness of responsible gambling and gambling behaviours in Ontario. International Gambling Studies, 5 , 95— This article reports the findings of a general population survey of knowledge of responsible gambling. It includes a preliminary measure of public awareness of information related to the definition of responsible gambling, symptoms of problem gambling, and awareness of the availability of services.
One particularly interesting finding was that people who gamble on lotteries and slot machines are more likely to report being aware of services. Williams, R. Prevention of problem gambling—A school-based intervention. This study was conducted to design, implement, and evaluate a school-based problem gambling prevention program. The study was guided by other programs as well as research on what has been shown to be effective.
Information concerning the nature of gambling and problem gambling. Exercises to make students less susceptible to the cognitive errors often underlying gambling fallacies. Information on the true odds involved in gambling activities and exercises on how to calculate these odds.
Teaching and rehearsal of generic decision-making and social problem-solving skills. Teaching and rehearsal of adaptive coping skills. The latter site experienced low enrolment and poor attendance. At the Calgary site, results of the program were promising with respect to knowledge, attitudes, and gambling activity. Short-term results, however, were more significant than long-term results on some measures. The implications of this are discussed. Adams, P. Minimising the impact of gambling in the subtle degradation of democratic systems.
This article deals with the ways in which gambling can undermine democratic participation and democratic culture itself. Gambling can undermine social and economic institutions, as well as a society's political processes. Notably in jurisdictions where gambling is rampant, alliances can form between the gambling industry and sections of government. Given that their economic interests converge, the temptation to permit gambling despite the wishes of a community will loom.
Globalization is another factor, permitting the gambling industry to act in force upon smaller or more vulnerable communities. But this paper has another focus: with so many individuals at least partly beholden to gambling revenues or having some relation with those who are , the ability or willingness of these people to participate in a democratic critique of gambling can be compromised. This article addresses subtle questions concerning the psychosocial dimensions of democratic culture and their relations to economic power.
Certain influences are hard to identify and to report. People working in universities, government departments, community organizations, and other areas can thus be affected. Any effort to minimize gambling-related harm must take this into account. The author calls for independent monitoring of people with public duties who have relationships to the beneficiaries of gambling profits, as well as for an international charter to address this matter.
Specific recommendations are given for various sectors, such as universities and the media. Alberta Gaming Research Institute. Research Reveals…. See, for example, the November issue below. Shawn Currie. Research Reveals…, 4 1. Conversely, for drinking there are clear limits for frequency and quantity. The aim of Dr. With the endorsement of gambling experts, such guidelines could be disseminated to the general public. Currie acknowledges that there is no such thing as risk-free gambling and that the thresholds could vary according to demographics e.
One of the most significant findings so far in Dr. Responsible gambling and prevention are major themes. Arnold, G. Towards a strategy for dealing with problem gambling. London, U. This is a general report, with the authors pointing out that only recently has problem gambling been identified as a serious concern. The U. The authors point out that treatment and prevention measures are too new to have been properly assessed.
Priority should be given to a telephone help-line. Education efforts should inform the public about the workings of commercial gambling, the serious problems that gambling can cause for a small minority, the indicators of problem gambling, and the types of help available. The authors note that many gamblers who may not suffer from real addiction nonetheless suffer some difficulties and could benefit from educational efforts. Bellringer, M. Supporting the wellbeing of young people in relation to gambling in New Zealand.
This report describes the measures taken to reduce harm related to problem gambling among New Zealand youth and offers many suggestions for improvement. At the time of writing, New Zealand gambling legislation did not represent an integrated agenda. The authors note that this generation aged 12 to 25 is growing up in an environment of legalized and normalized gambling and hence faces new difficulties, partly due to overly positive perceptions of gambling and its implications. Other highlights are as follows: adults should be equipped with the necessary knowledge of gambling's negative potential; legislation should be geared to harm minimization; Maori, Pacific, and Asian concerns must be addressed; and knowledge should be built upon information and research.
Many issues, including protective and risk factors, are discussed. Black, R. The ethics of gambling: Guidelines for players and commercial providers. International Gambling Studies, 3 , — Discussions of gambling issues tend to focus upon social impact rather than ethics. This paper offers an alternative, philosophical, perspective on the ethical issues related to the provision of gambling services. If gambling is not necessarily wrong, it still requires an ethical foundation guiding gamblers and providers.
The gaming industry will, however, need to alter the ways in which it perceives itself. Currently, whatever ethical discourse exists tends to be in the tradition of public preaching that was practised a century ago. The authors invoke Kant and Aristotle, with questions pertaining to fulfillment and rationality of choices. Is it possible to use gambling as a humanly fulfilling experience? This and other questions are explored. Gambling that took itself seriously along these lines could undo harm and make a serous contribution to the common good.
Harm minimization strategies in gambling—An overview of international initiatives and interventions. This report is an overview of harm reduction strategies in several nations. The author points out that there is still little consensus as to what harm reduction means, though an operational definition is provided. Parallels with substance abuse are discussed. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention are defined and discussed in terms of their principles and effectiveness. A science-based framework for responsible gambling: The Reno model.
Industry operators, health care providers, social scientists, community groups, relevant government agencies, and other interested parties should join together, essentially forming a coalition geared to reducing or eliminating gambling-related harm while maximizing its benefits. The strategic framework should be based upon empirical, rather than anecdotal, evidence, thereby focussing effectively on vulnerable community members while at the same time avoiding unintended effects upon the majority of harm-free recreational gamblers. While different stakeholders such as industry operators and health service providers often define responsible gambling from different perspectives, governments bear the final responsibility for legislative and regulatory initiatives.
Currently, however, community pressure often leads to restriction or elimination of gambling venues without scientifically based evidence of harm reduction. The two main barriers to the implementation and evaluation of responsible gambling strategies—lack of conceptual clarity and absence of consensus—should be overcome through empirically and theoretically sound knowledge.
For example, specifically focussed psychometric prevalence estimates currently fail to distinguish between subgroups within the problem gambling population e. Five principles are laid out: 1 Key stakeholders will commit to reducing the incidence and prevalence of gambling-related harm.
Keep trying to look forwards. We will never look back or give it any brain space. Behav Res Ther. Skickas inom vardagar. Stephanie S Covington. I lost all logic and all value of a dollar, I blew months Of work in 10 hours. Biol Psychiatry.
The authors argue for the establishment of a global body representing everyone associated with the gambling industry. Chevalier, S. Motivations for gambling as tools for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling. The researchers discuss the beneficial aspects of gambling with the goal of using some of these for improving treatment of problem gambling. The authors argue that understanding precisely what gambling does for people can help to provide focus for attempts to develop substitute activities that may deliver similar benefits.
Despite the title, this report has far more to do with treatment than prevention. Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling — Prevention of problem gambling: A monthly newsletter on problem gambling prevention information, research, and initiative. This monthly newsletter covered issues pertaining to the prevention of problem gambling and is still available on-line. Derevensky, J. Gambling levels among children and adolescents are growing at an unprecedented rate, and high levels of problem gambling among youth have been identified.
The strengths and weaknesses of various screening instruments, along with some of the modifications made for addressing youth, are discussed.
The authors discuss qualitative issues, such as higher correlation between scales for males than for females, and the items best reflecting the differences between those reporting mild to moderate gambling problems and those reporting serious problems. Comparison of the three screens revealed fairly high agreement and verify the contention that more youth notably males report serious gambling problems than adults. More research is needed to identify characteristics that differentiate between male and female youth problem gamblers, and more attention should be paid to the fact that there may be different types of problem gamblers.
Gambling addiction, for instance, is a compulsive behavior in which a person has the uncontrollable urge to gamble despite the negative repercussions it may have. Those with gambling addiction are willing to risk something of value in the hope that it will allow them to obtain something of greater value. The desire to feel the rush and win big can overpower more rational thoughts, leading to the development of compulsive, addictive behaviors. This may display itself through behaviors such as continuously chasing bets, depleted savings, growing debt, fraud, and theft. What makes gambling addiction more problematic is its growing accessibility to the public.
Through the use of smart phones, tablets, and other devices, placing a bet is as easy as pressing a button. It is easier to hide problematic gambling behavior through these devices, making it harder for loved ones to recognize there is a problem before it is too late. Gambling addiction can destroy lives, but there are risk factors and symptoms that can help identify the problem, while proper treatment can effectively help addicts regain control of their lives.
Click here to learn more about our individualized addiction treatment program. The causes of gambling addiction are relatively unknown, but like many problems, it appears to originate as a result of a combination of biological, genetic, and environmental factors. Compulsive gambling can impact both men and women equally, and knows no bounds as far as social, cultural, and socioeconomic factors are concerned.
Although many people will gamble at least once in their lives, many will not develop an addiction to the behavior. There are several risk factors that may put an individual at a higher risk for addiction. These include:. Behavior and mood disorders: People who compulsively gamble often also struggle with another behavior or mood disorder. This may be substance addiction, mood, or personality disorders.
The existence of at least one preexisting disorder can put people at greater risk for developing co-occurring disorders. Many gamblers also struggle with alcoholism and depression as a result of their habits.