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Payment Methods accepted by seller. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: 31 May Stock Image. Published by Siruela, Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe, landing in such places as Taiwanball , Japanball , the island of East Timorball , and in the Moluccas. Although for a long period it was believed the Dutch were the first Europeans to arrive in Australiaball , there is also some evidence that the Portuguese may have discovered Australiaball in The Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April between Portugal and Spainball , specified the anti-meridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
All these factors made Portugal one of the world's major economic, military, and political powers from the 15th century until the late 16th century. Portugal's sovereignty was interrupted between and Although Portugal did not lose its formal independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed the Spanish Empire, briefly forming a union of kingdoms.
At this time Spain was a geographic territory. The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of an independent foreign policy and led to its involvement in the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Netherlands. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, Englandball , and the loss of Hormuz, a strategic trading post located between Iranball and Omanball. From to the Dutch-Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch Republicball companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazilball , Africa, Indiaball and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian sea trade monopoly.
In , John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. The Portuguese Restoration War between Portugal and the Spanish Empireball , in the aftermath of the revolt, ended the sixty-year period of the Iberian Union under the House of Habsburg. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza, which reigned in Portugal until Pedro's reign saw the consolidation of national independence, imperial expansion, and investment in domestic production.
Acting as an absolute monarch, John nearly depleted his country's tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace, and on commissions and additions for his sizable art and literary collections. Official estimates — and most estimates made so far — place the number of Portuguese migrants to Colonial Brazilball during the gold rush of the 18th century at , This represented one of the largest movements of European populations to their colonies in the Americas during colonial times. John V died the following year and his son, Joseph I of Portugal, was crowned.
As the King's confidence in de Melo increased, the King entrusted him with more control of the state. Impressed by British economic success that he had witnessed from his time as an Ambassador, he successfully implemented similar economic policies in Portugal. He abolished slavery in Portugal and in the Portuguese colonies in Indiaball ; reorganized the army and the navy; restructured the University of Coimbra, and ended discrimination against different Christian sects in Portugal.
He demarcated the region for production of Port to ensure the wine's quality, and this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. He ruled with a strong hand by imposing strict law upon all classes of Portuguese society from the high nobility to the poorest working class, along with a widespread review of the country's tax system. These reforms gained him enemies in the upper classes, especially among the high nobility, who despised him as a social upstart.
Disaster fell upon Portugal in the morning of 1 November , when Lisbon was struck by a violent earthquake with an estimated moment magnitude of 8. The city was razed to the ground by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami and ensuing fires. We bury the dead and take care of the living. Despite the calamity and huge death toll, Lisbon suffered no epidemics and within less than one year was already being rebuilt. The new city centre of Lisbon was designed to resist subsequent earthquakes.
Architectural models were built for tests, and the effects of an earthquake were simulated by marching troops around the models. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline City Centre still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions. The Lisbon earthquake devastated Portugal with an estimated magnitude between 8.
As his power grew, his enemies increased in number, and bitter disputes with the high nobility became frequent. In Joseph I was wounded in an attempted assassination. The Jesuits were expelled from the country and their assets confiscated by the crown. This was the final stroke that broke the power of the aristocracy. Joseph I made his loyal minister Count of Oeiras in In , Spainball invaded Portuguese territory as part of the Seven Years' War, but by the status quo between Spain and Portugal before the war had been restored.
In the autumn of , Franceball began moving her troops through Spainball to invade Portugal. From to , British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal, while the royal family and the Portuguese nobility, including Maria I, relocated to the Portuguese territory of Brazilball , at that time a colony of the Portuguese Empire, in South America.
This episode is known as the Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazilball. With the occupation by Napoleon, Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline that lasted until the 20th century. This decline was hastened by the independence in of the country's largest colonial possession, Brazilball. As a result of the change in its status and the arrival of the Portuguese royal family, Brazilian administrative, civic, economical, military, educational, and scientific apparatus were expanded and highly modernized.
Thus he returned to Portugal but left his son Pedro in charge of Brazilball. When the Portuguese Government attempted the following year to return the Kingdom of Brazil to subordinate status, his son Pedro, with the overwhelming support of the Brazilian elites, declared Brazilball 's independence from Portugal. Cisplatinaball today's sovereign state of Uruguayball , in the south, was one of the last additions to the territory of Brazilball under Portuguese rule.
Brazilian independence was recognized in , whereby Emperor Pedro I granted to his father the titular honour of Emperor of Brazil. John VI's death in caused serious questions in his succession. Though Pedro was his heir, and reigned briefly as Pedro IV, his status as a Brazilian monarch was seen as an impediment to holding the Portuguese throne by both nations. Pedro abdicated in favour of his daughter, Maria II. However, Pedro's brother, Infante Miguel, claimed the throne in protest.
In order to defend his daughter's rights to the throne, Pedro launched the Liberal Wars to reinstall his daughter and establish a constitutional monarchy in Portugal.
The war ended in , with Miguel's defeat, the promulgation of a constitution, and the reinstatement of Queen Maria II. Under his reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced. His popularity increased when, during the cholera outbreak of —, he visited hospitals handing out gifts and comforting the sick. At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia.
During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there. With the Conference of Berlin of , Portuguese Africa territories had their borders formally established on request of Portugal in order to protect the centuries-long Portuguese interests in the continent from rivalries enticed by the Scramble for Africa. Even before the turn of the 20th century, railway tracks as the Benguela railway in Angolaball , and the Beira railway in Mozambique, started to be built to link coastal areas and selected inland regions.
Other episodes during this period of the Portuguese presence in Africa include the British Ultimatum.
Under his rule, Portugal had twice been declared bankrupt — on 14 June , and again on 10 May — causing social turmoil, economic disturbances, protests, revolts and criticism of the monarchy. Manuel II of Portugal became the new king, but was eventually overthrown by the 5 October revolution, which abolished the regime and instated republicanism in Portugal. Gradually, new economic development projects and relocation of mainland Portuguese citizens into the overseas provinces in Africa were initiated, with Angolaball and Mozambiqueball , as the largest and richest overseas territories, being the main targets of those initiatives.
These actions were used to affirm Portugal's status as a transcontinental nation and not as a colonial empire. After Indiaball attained independence in , pro-Indian residents of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, with the support of the Indian government and the help of pro-independence organisations, separated the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese rule in Another forcible retreat from overseas territories occurred in December when Portugal refused to relinquish the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu.
As a result, the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against the Indian Armed Forces. The operations resulted in the defeat and surrender of the limited Portuguese defensive garrison, which was forced to surrender to a much larger military force. The outcome was the loss of the remaining Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese regime refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories, which continued to be represented in Portugal's National Assembly until the military coup of Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.
This period was characterized by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces.
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The retreat from the overseas territories and the acceptance of its independence terms by Portuguese head representatives for overseas negotiations, which would create independent states in , prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambiqueball.
Over one million Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese provinces as white settlers were usually not considered part of the new identities of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia. By , all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. In this capacity Soares tried to resume the economic growth and development record that had been achieved before the Carnation Revolution, during the last decade of the previous regime.
He initiated the process of accession to the European Economic Community EEC by starting accession negotiations as early as Portugal bounced between socialism and adherence to the neoliberal model. Land reform and nationalizations were enforced; the Portuguese Constitution approved in was rewritten in order to accommodate socialist and communist principles. Until the constitutional revisions of and , the constitution was a highly charged ideological document with numerous references to socialism, the rights of workers, and the desirability of a socialist economy.
Portugal's economic situation after its transition to democracy, obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund IMF -monitored stabilization programs in —78 and — Portugal's last overseas territory, Macauball , was peacefully handed over to Chinaball in , under the joint declaration that set the terms for Macauball 's handover from Portugal to Chinaball. In , the independence of East Timor Asia was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in because of the Carnation Revolution, but interrupted by an Indonesian armed invasion and occupation.
On 26 March , Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states. Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the eurozone.
The Republic of Ireland was the only EU state to hold a democratic referendum on the Lisbon Treaty; it was initially rejected by voters in Portugalball has seen a constant flow of different civilizations during the past years. Tartesos, Celts , Phoenicians , Carthaginians , Greeks , Romans , Lusitanians, Germanic Suevi and Visigoths , Muslims , Jews and other populations have left their mark on the culture, history, language and ethnicity.
Portugalball have three branches: air force, navy force and ground force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the country. Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angolaball in and in Guinea-Bissauball in with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflicts.
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